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WELSH JOINT EDUCATION COMMITTEE
Y CYD-BWYLLGOR ADDYSG CYMREIG

GENERAL CERTIFICATE OF EDUCATION

Summer Examination, 1957

Ordinary Level

(2 HOURS) GENERAL SCIENCE 0b

[Answer SIX questions, TWO from each section.
Special importance is attached to large, clearly labelled
Diagrams, provided they make the answer easier to
Understand. Time should note be spent in making
unnecessary diagrams.]

Section A

 

1.   State the Principle of Archimedes, and describe
carefully an experiment you have carried out to verify
this principle.
      Explain briefly (a) why a hydrogen balloon rises,
but will eventually stop rising; (b) how a balloonist can
control the altitude of his balloon.

2.   Distinguish briefly between conduction, convec-
tion, and radiation of heat.
      Describe carefully an experiment by which you
could determine which of two metals, e.g. copper and
iron, is the better conductor of heat.
      Explain the principle of the Davey miner's safety-
Lamp.

3.   What is the essential difference between a luminous
body and a non-luminous body ? State, giving one
reason in each case, into which of these classes you
would place each of the following: a book; Mars; the
Sun; a glass prism; a red-hot cinder.
       By means of a labelled diagram only, show how
total and partial eclipses of the moon are caused.
Why do we always see the same side of the moon?

 

 

Turn Over.

2

 

4.   State two differences and two similarities between
sound waves and light waves.
      Describe experiments you would carry out to
demonstrate the factors which determine the pitch of a
note given out by a string.
      Briefly explain what is meant by the statement that
the frequency of middle C is 256.

5.   Make a labelled drawing of a simple voltaic cell,
And show the direction in which the current flows in a
wire which is connected to the terminals of the cell.
      Describe how you would use such a cell to demon-
strate polarization.
      Explain clearly the action of a fuse in an electrical
circuit.

Section B

6.   State two reasons why river water may be unfit
for drinking.
      Draw the apparatus you would use to obtain pure
water from a sample of river water.
      Comment on the suitability of the pure water so
obtained for each of the following purposes: (a) for
drinking; (b) for electrolysis; (c) for keeping goldfish in.

7.   Make a labelled drawing of the apparatus you
would use to prepare several gas jars of carbon dioxide.
      Name one substance which will burn in carbon
dioxide, name the resultant products, and describe their
appearance.
      Briefly explain why the carbon dioxide content of
the atmosphere remains approximately constant.

8.   Describe carefully an experiment by which you
could show that there is a change in weight when a
substance, e.g. magnesium, is burned in air.
      Describe another experiment by which you
could find what fraction of air by volume is used in
burning.
      In what ways does combustion resemble respira-
tion.

 

Turn Over.

3

9.    Describe briefly how temporary hardness in water
may be caused naturally.
      Explain the changes which occur when soap is used
with such water.
      Describe an experiment you would carry out to
find which of two samples of water was the harder.

10.  Make a labelled drawing of the apparatus you
would use to prepare hydrochloric acid in aqueous
solution, and explain carefully the precautions you
would take.
      State two commercial uses of this acid, and two
purposes which it serves in the human body.
      Give two tests by which you could distinguish
between dilute hydrochloric acid and brine.

Section C

11.  Explain briefly what is meant by 'photo-
synthesis'.
       Describe experiments, one in each case, to show
that (a) oxygen is evolved during photosynthesis,
(b) light is necessary for photosynthesis.

12.   Make a labelled diagram of a vertical section
through the flower of a buttercup.
        Describe fully how this flower is pollinated, and
make a labelled drawing of the fruit which is formed.

13.  What is meant by the circulation of nitrogen in
nature, and how is it brought about.
       In what type of foodstuff does man take nitrogen
into the body? State what use is made of the nitrogen
which is assimilated, and state what happens to the
remainder.

 

Turn over.

4

 

14.  Make a labelled diagram showing the reproduce-
tive organs of a female mammal containing an embryo.
       Briefly describe the structure of the placenta, and
state its functions.
       Name the structures responsible for (a) protection
of the embryo plant, (b) nourishment of the embryo
plant.

15.   Describe the habits of the housefly, and hence
explain why it is regarded as a dangerous spreader of
disease.
       State why the elimination of each of the following
is desirable: (a) the roundworm; (b) the flea.



 

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